大学英语

2022年07月06日 99 字 考研必背

英语学习笔记

考前分析

image-20220118233134796

Part1 单选题

  • 词义辨析题:45% 13道
  • 词语他陪题:23.5% 7道
  • 语法结构题:31.5% 10道

1.词义辨析题

  • 近形词词义辨析
  • 近义词词义辨析
  • 短语辨析

clash 冲突,打斗

crash (车)碰撞,(飞机)坠毁

eg.His car crashed into a bus yesterday.

​ The plane crashed after take-off.

flash 闪光,闪现

crush 粉碎,压扁

eg.Religion has a great _____________ on man’s thought.

A.effects B.affect C.affection D.influence

解析:

effect n.影响;

affect v,影响

affection

influence n&v.影响(对人的品质的长期影响)

关于turn的短语

turn on

turn off

turn up

turn down

turn over

turn in

turn out

3.语法结构题

  • as的特殊倒装现象:

adj/adv/n + as + 主 + 谓

Part2 阅读理解题

  • 推理判断题:44%
  • 事实细节题:35%
  • 主旨大意题:11%
  • 词语理解题:6%
  • 观点态度题:4%

上篇:词汇语法

第一节:时态和语态

英语时态:

现在 过去 将来 过去将来
一般 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 一般过去将来时
进行 现在进行时 过去进行时 将来进行时 过去将来进行时
完成 现在完成时 过去完成时 将来完成时 过去将来完成时
完成进行 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时 将来完成进行时 过去将来完成进行时

考点01 一般现在时

I/we/you/they/复数主语 +动词原形

he/she/ir/单数主语 +动词的单三形式

一些特殊单三形式:

do —— does

go —— goes

watch —— watches

eg.I learn English.

He learns English.

翻译:她每天写一封信。

She writers letter every day.

  • 用法:

    • 表经常发生的动作

      时间副词:always,often,usually(通常),sometimes(有时),every day,once week,twice a month,tree times a year,once in a while(偶尔),now and then(有时;偶尔)…

      • eg.Tom reads English books every day.

        He always gets up at 7:00.

    • 表示客观事实或普遍真理

      • eg.The sun rises in the east.(太阳从东边升起)

        The light travels faster than the sound.

        Mathematics is the language of science.

        He learned that the earth travels aroud the sun yesterday.

    • 表示安排或计划好的将要发生的动作,或表示按时间表将要发生的动作

      ​ 常用动词:come,go,start, begin,leave,return…

      • eg.The train leaves at 8:00 next morning.
    • 主将从现(!!!重要考点!!!)

      ​ 含义:主语使用一般将来时,从句(位于连词后面)使用一般现在时

      ​ 用法:通常用在时间或条件状语从句

      ​ 常考连词:

      ​ 时间:when/as soon as(一…就…)/ the moment/the minute

      ​ 条件:if/in case(如果)/as long as(只要)/unless(如果不)/once

      • eg.I will let you know when I hear from him.

        You will success if you rey your best.

        When I have money,I will buy a car.

        If you don’t leave me,we will die together.

    • 主祈从现

      含义:主句是祈使句,从句使用一般现在时

      用法:通常用在时间或条件状语从句

      常考连词:与主将从现的连词一样

      祈使句:

      1. 动词原形开头 shut up
      2. 否定句 Don’t…
      3. Please+动词原形
      4. Let’s…
      • eg.Please tell her the news when she comes.

考点02 一般过去时

  • 谓语结构:动词的过去式

用法:用来描述过去发生的动作或存在的状态

时间状语:

last(night,Friday,week,month,year…)

yesterday,the day before yesterday(前天)

just now,a moment ago,in + 过去年份

eg.She bought a car last week.

考点03 一般将来时

He will write a letter tomorrow.

Look at the cloud!It is going to rain.

The grils are to go home next week.

  • 用法:

    • 将来发生的动作

      时间状语:tomorrow,the day after tomorrow(后天),next week/month/year/Monday/Sunday

      tonight,this afternoon/evening/Sunday

      in the future,in two days(两天后)

      • eg.He will write a letter morrow.
    • 位移动词可以用现在进行时表达一般现在将来时

      位移动词:come,go,leave,arrive,fly,return…

      leave +地点——>离开某地 leave for +地点——>前往某地

      • eg.He is leving New York tomorrow.

        I am coming to Jhon’s home next week.

    • 祈使句+and for/or+谓语用一般将来时的句子

      and——>那么 顺承关系

      or——>否则 转折关系

      eg.Give me more hour,and I will finish it.

      Close the window,or you will catch a cold.

考点04 现在进行时

  • 谓语结构:am/is/are +doing

  • 用法:表示现在正在进行的动作

  • 时间状语:now,at present

    • eg.I am watching TV.

      He is learning French at collge at present.

考点05 过去进行时

  • 谓语结构:was/were + doing

  • 用法:表示过去某一时刻或某一时段内正在进行的动作

    • eg.When you called me last night,I was reading a novel(小说).

考点06 将来进行时

  • 谓语结构:will be + doing

  • 用法:表示将来某一时刻或某时间内正在进行的动作

    • eg.I will be cieaning my room this time tomorrow.

考点07 现在完成时

  • 谓语结构:have/has + 过去分词(done)

  • 用法:表示现在已经完成的动作

    • eg.She has lived Guangdong since 2000.

      We have been friends for ten years.

      I have finished my homework by now(到现在为止).

    • 现在完成时常考的时间状语

      • for+时间段

        for ten days(十天),for a week(一周)

        • eg.She has studied English for ten years.
      • since+过去时间点

        since+一般过去时的从句

        • eg.She has learned English since 1995.

          She has learned English since she was a child.

      • so far;by now; up to now “到目前为止”

        • eg.She has learned 8000 words by now.

          She has learned 8000 words so far

考点08 过去完成时

  • 谓语:had + 过去分词(done)

  • 用法:表示过去某个时间或某个动作之前已经完成的动作

    • eg.在冯绍峰娶赵丽颖之前,他曾爱过倪妮。

      翻译:Feng shaofeng had loved Ni Ni before he married Zhao Liying.

      He bought a new moblie phone last Sunday because his old noe had been stolen.

      总结:两件事都发生在过去,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的用一般现在时

    • 过去完成时常考的时间状语

      • by+过去的时间

        by the time + 一般过去时的从句 (在…之前)

        • eg.By the end of last year,he had finshed two papers.

          Peter had colleted 300 stamps by the time he was 10 years old.

      • before + 过去分词

        before + 一般过去的从句

        • eg.Before the end of last year,he had finshed two papers.

          Peter had colleted 300 stamps before the time he was 10 years old.

考点09 将来完成时

  • 谓语结构:will/shall have+过去分词(done)

​ will适用于各种人称

​ shall have 适用于I/we

  • 用法:表示将来某个时间或某个动作之前已经完成的动作

    • eg.I will have finished the job by the next Friday.
  • 将来完成是常考的时间状语

    by + 将来的时间

    by the time + 一般现在时从句

    • eg.I will have finished my papers by the end of next month.

      By the time you arrive in Beijing, we wiill have finished the task.

动词的语态

考点01 被动语态的结构

He opened font >the door.(主动语态)

The door was opened by his.(被动语态)

image-20220121083655420

一般现在时:am/is/are + done

一般过去式:was/were + done

一般将来时:will be + done

现在进行时:am/is/are being + done

过去完成时:was/were being + done

现在完成时:have/has been + done

过去完成时:have been + done

将来完成时:will have been +done

考点02 无被动的动词及词组

  • eg.The accident was happened last week.(×)

    The accident happened last week.(√)

  • 常见的无被动的动词及词组:不及物动词

    happen,take place,occur(发生),break out, belong to,prove(证明是),turn out(结果是),appear,consist of(由…组成),rise…

考点03 主动表被动的四种形式

The pen writes easily.

The cakes sell quickly.

The table cleans easily.

  • 主语(物)+ 特殊动词主动形式(write,sell,drive,wash,clean)+ well,easily

This silk(丝绸) feels soft.

The apples taste sweet.

The song sounds great.

  • 主语(物)+ 感官系动词的主动形式(feel,look,sound,smell,taste)+形容词

The flowers need watering.

The washing machine requires repairing.

Her hair wants cutting.

  • 主语(物)+want/need/require + doing

The book is worth reading.

The plan is worth considering.

  • 主语(物)+be worth doing 值得做某事

第二节:非谓语动词

一般情况下一句一主谓,如果超过一个动词

  1. 用连词“and”,“or”等构成并列句
  2. 用连词“which,that,when“等构成三大从句
  3. 为打破一个句子只可以有一个中心谓语动词的魔咒,将第二个动词变形为非谓语的形式

I am a teacher teach English.(×)

I am a teacher and teach English.(√)

I am a teacher who teaches English.(√)

I am a teacher teaching English.(√)

  • 不定式to do 目的和将来
  • 现在分词doing 进行和一般
  • 过去分词done 被动和完成
  • 用法:

    • 非谓语动词的否定式的一律在其正前方加not

      • Not having finished his work, he had to stay at home at the weekend.
    • 非谓语动词做宾语

      • I love you.

        I love walking along the seaside of Maldives with you.

        I love to walk along the seaside of Maldives with you.

        实质:谓语动词之后出现第二个动词, 变成非谓语动词

      • 主 + 动词 + to do sth

        hope,wish,want, agree, promise

        demand,ask,refuse

        manage,learn,decide

        pretend,choose

      • 口诀:喜欢花费忙着想想 忍不住想要结束练习

        1. enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事
        2. spend…in doing sth. 花费…做某事
        3. be busy doing sth. 忙于
        4. imagine doing sth. 想想
        5. can’t help doing sth. 忍不住/情不自禁
        6. feel like doing sth. 想要
        7. finish doing sth. 完成
        8. practice doing sth. 练习

        口诀:错过建议保持介意值得考虑

        1. misss doing sth. 错过
        2. suggest doing sth. 建议
        3. keep (on) doing sth. 保持(继续)
        4. mind doing sth. 介意
        5. be worth doing sth. 值得
        6. consider doing sth. 考虑
    • 非谓语作定语

      1. an interesting story

      2. a car having been repaired

      3. the next train to arrive is from New York

      4. 实质:前置定语+后置定语

5. 单个-ing/-ed,前置

   1. -ing+名词:表示用途

      a <font color='red'>swimming </font>pool = a pool for swimming

      a <font color='red'>reading </font>room = a room for reading

   2. V-ing正在...的,表主动/进行      V-ed已经...的,表完成

      a <font color='red'>developing </font>country(发展中的)

      a <font color='red'>developed </font>country(发达的)

      <font color='red'>boiling </font>water (正在沸腾的)

      <font color='red'>boiled </font>water(开水)

      the <font color='red'>rising </font>sun(冉冉上升的旭日)

      the <font color='red'>risen </font>sun(升起的太阳)

6. 前置定语

   -ing常修饰物,翻译成“令人...”

   -ed常修饰人,翻译成“感到...”

   an <font color='red'>exciting </font>new

   an <font color='red'>excited </font>man

   a <font color='red'>moving </font>film



   ***eg.The girl<font color='red'> who is sitting</font> in the corneris       adorable.——>.The girl sitting in the corneris       adorable***

   ​    ***We visited a temple which was built 200 years ago.——>We visited a temple built 200 years ago.***

   ​    ***The vegetables which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.——>The vegetables sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.***

   ​    ***The houses which are being built are for the survivors in the quake.——>The houses being built are for the survivors in the quake.***
  • 非谓语动词作宾补

    口诀:要求与命令

    ask sb. to do sth.

    tell sb. to do sth.

    口诀:想要邀请期待鼓励与建议

    want sb. to do sth. 想

    invite sb. to do sth. 邀请

    expect sb. to do sth. 期待

    encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励

    advise sb. to do sth. 建议

    suggest sb. to do sth. 建议

    一个帮助看着办

    help sb. to do sth. = help to do sth.

- 使役动词

  ***have/make/let+人/物+do Let it go.***
  ***have/make/Ilet+人/物+done***

  重要考点:

  <font color='red'>have sth.done</font>    让某事被做,即做某事

  have the book <u>printed</u>(印刷)

  have your eyes <u>examined</u>(检查)

- 被动to还原

  1. ***My mother <font color='red'>makes </font>me <font color='red'>learn </font>English every day.***
  2. ***I a<font color='red'>m made to learn</font> English every day.***

- 其他常考接宾补动词

  1. ***<font color='red'>leave/keep</font> sb doing sth使某人处于某种状态***

     ***eg keep me waiting for 2hours.***

     **leave-left-left **

     ***keep-kept-kept.***

  2. ***<font color='red'>get</font> sb.to do sth.使做…***

     ***eg The doctor will get the patient to stop smoking.***
  • 非谓语动词作状语

    • 习惯用法:通常放于句首

      1. to tell(you)the truth 说实话
      2. to be honest 诚实说;坦白说
      3. to be frank 坦白说
      4. to speak frankly 坦白说
      5. to begin/start with 首先
      6. strange to say 说来奇怪
      7. needless to say 不用说
    • 考点:to do作目的状语可句首可句尾表目的

      1.We live to serve the people heart and soul.

      2.We study hard to pass the exam.

      3.He got up early to catch the bus.(目的状语)

    • 考点:only to(表示出乎意料的结果)

      eg He hurried to the station only to find the train had left.

    • 考点:v-ing与v-ed做状语的两种情况

      1. When he hears the good news,he cries.

      2. 特点:

        ​ ①两句有逻辑联系;

        ​ ②两句主语一样

        一主两动

      3. Hearing the new,he cries.

     ***1.We saton the high hillocknd listened to the old story.***

     ***2.We sat on the high hillock,listening to the old story.***

     ***3.Sitting on the high hillock,we listened to the old story.***

  - 独立主格(两主两动):

    走路的时候,一块馅饼砸到我头上了。

    1. ***When <font color='red'>I </font>was walking in a street, <font color='red'>a pie</font> fell on my head.***
    2. ***I <font color='red'>walking</font> in a street, a pie fell on my head.***



    <font color='orange'>牢记:独立主格固定句式</font>

    1. ***<font color='red'>Time/Weather permitting</font>,we‘ll go on a journey.***
    2. ***<font color='red'>Everying taken into consideration</font>,he ia a very good boy.***
    3. **<font color='red'>All things considered</font>,we have to give up the idea.**

    ******
  • 非谓语动词常考句型

    1. 无用句型:

      It is no use,no good +(in)doing sth.

      说多了都是泪。

      It is no use saying more……….

      There is no use,no good,no point,no sense
      +(in)doing sth.

    2. 据说据报道句型
      +be+said/reported/known/supposed to have done/to have been done..+过去时间状语

      eg The novels are reported to have been translated into many languages last year.

    3. 有do无to

      can do nothing but + do

      have nothing to do but do(原形)

      无do有to:谓语动词不含do,则but后跟to。

      have no choice but to do

    4. 发现…难做

      find+sth.difficult/hard/easy + to do

      finger可换成think,consider

      做…有困难

      have difficulty/trouble/problem (in) doing

    5. 复合结构

      I‘m happy for your telling me the truth.

      I’m angry for Tom‘s not telling me the truth.

      人物’s+doing

第三节:虚拟语气

什么是虚拟语气?

  • 如果明天下雨,会议将被取消

If it rains tomorrow,the meeting will be cancelled.

  • 如果我是范冰冰,我机会马上嫁给李晨。

If I were Fan Bingbing,I would marry Li Chen.

  • 用来表达不可能实现的愿望或与事实相反的假设

一、 if型条件虚拟

考点01 if型条件虚拟表格

条件从句 if从句 主句
现在 动词的过去式(be用were) would/could/should/might + do
过去 had done would/could/should/might + have done
将来 1.动词的过去式(be用were)
2.were to do
3.should do
would/could/should/might + do

If I earned a lot money,I will buy a Ferrari(法拉利).

If I had studied hard,I would have entered a good university.

If you should successed in CET-6,everything would be all right.

考点02 错综虚拟

If you had proposed to her last year,she would be your wife now.

考点03 省略if型虚拟

If I were Fan Bingbing, I would marry Li Chen immediately.

Were I Fan Binging,I would marry Li Chen immediately.

  • 省略if的条件:从句中必须有were,had或should当中的任何一个
  • 省略方法:
    1. 去掉if;
    2. 把were,had或should提到主语前(句首)

二、 含蓄虚拟

Without God‘s help,Jack couldn’t have got the ticket.

  1. without,but for +名词/名词短语
  2. or,otherwise +句子
  • 对现在/将来的虚拟:

would/could/should/might + do

  • 对过去的虚拟

    would/could/should/might + have done

    • eg:Without CPC,we could not live a happy life now.

      He felt very tired yesterday,or he would have attended the party.

三、 should型虚拟

  1. adj标志词

    • 形容词+that从句

      从句谓语:should+do(should常省略)

      important essential necessary vital

      advisable preferable desirable

      imperative strange sorry

      image-20220124074817439

  2. 动词标志词(考频最多)

    • 形容词+that从句

      从句谓语:should+do(should常省略)

      insist 坚持

      oder,command 要求;命令

      asvise,suggest,propose 建议

      demand,ask,require,request 要求

      口诀:一坚持二命令三建议四要求

      image-20220124075706691

  3. 名词标志词

    名词+that从句

    从句谓语:should+do(should常省略)

    suggestion advise 两建议

    demand requirement 两要求

    order command 两命令

    proposal 一提议

    image-20220124075706691

  4. 连词性标志词

    • lest(以防万一)= in case

      for fear that(唯恐;为了防止)

      image-20220124081213835

四、 句型虚拟

  1. would rather 宁愿

    现在:过去式(be用were)

    将来:过去式(be用were)

    过去:had done

  2. wish 但愿

    if only 如果…就好了

    as if/as though 好像

    • 现在:过去式(be用were)

      将来:would/could/might/ + do

      过去:had done

  3. high time句型

    • It is (high/about) time (that)…

      “该做…的时候了”

      image-20220124082707148

      • eg.It is high time you worked hard.

第四节:定语从句

什么是定语从句?

  • 赵丽颖是一个可爱的女孩。

    Zhao Liying is a lovely girl.

  • 赵丽颖是一个勤奋的女孩。

    Zhao Liying is a diligent girl.

  • 有着一张圆圆的脸的女孩是赵丽颖。

    The girl who has a roud face is Zhao Liying.

  • 赵丽颖是一个受许多人欢迎的女孩.

    Zhao Liying is a girl who is popular with many people.

  1. 先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词/代词,位于定语从句之前
  2. 关系词:引导定语从句的连词,位于先行词之后
  3. 主句和从句的划分方法
    • 从句的起点:关系词之前开始
    • 从句的终点:
      1. 关系词开始有一个谓语动词,到句尾结束
      2. 关系词开始有两个谓语动词,到第二个谓语之前结束
        • The man who is shaking hands with Mary is Tom.
        • The movie which we saw last night was interesting.
        • I still remember the day when I first came.限制性定语从句
        • People who take physical exercise live longer.非限制性定语从句
        • Her boyfriend,who is in Beijing now,is coming home next week.

一、 关系词的选用

考点01 关系词的分类及作用

  • 关系词分类:

    关系代词:**who whom which that whose as**

    关系副词:when where why

    • The man who is shaking hands with Mary is Tom.

      关系词的作用:

      • 连接作用(连接主句和从句)

      • 指代作用(指代前面的先行词)

        在从句中充当一定的成分

考点02 关系词的通常选用方法

关系词 先行词 从句成分
who 主语、宾语
whom 宾语
which 主语、宾语
that 人或物 主语、宾语、表语
when 时间 时间状语
where 地点 地点状语
why 原因 原因状语

选用步骤:

  • 看先行词

  • 看从句缺什么成份

    如果从句缺少主干成份,答案在关系代词中选

    如果从句不缺少主干成份,答案在关系副词中选

  • 怎么判断不缺主干成份?

    The man who is shaking hands with Mary is Tom.

    The factory which we will visit next week is far from here.

    The company where I work is far from here.

  • 常见的及物动词:及物动词缺宾语要加宾语

    • remember forget visit spend say finish doimage-20220124124114032
    • 介词(+宾语)
    • 常见的不及物动词
      • work go come stay live listen look arrive rise depend suffer
      • be done被动语态后不缺宾语

考点03 关系词的特殊选用方法

  • which的特殊用法

    Rose has fallen in love with Tom,which I can’t believe.

    which可指代前面一整句话!

    此时which译为:“这一点,这件事”

    He succeeded in the competition,which made his parents very happy.

  • whose的特殊用法

    先行词+whose+n

    • eg.This is Jim whose homework is praised by the teacher.

      The house whose windows face the sea is broken.

  • as的特殊用法

    • as放于句首的用法

      As is known to all 众所周知

      As is reported 据报道

      As is expected 正如被期待的那样

      As is mentioned above 正如上面提到的那样

      As is often the case 情况通常如此

    • as放于句中的用法

      such/the same + 先行词 + as

      I have never seen such a clever man as he is.

      I like the same books as you like.

  • that的特殊使用情况:

    • 先行词为以下不定代词或被这些不定代词修饰时:
      all,everything,anything,something,nothing, little,none,any等,关系词一般用that.

      • eg.I was very interested in all that she told me.
    • 先行词被序数词、形容词最高级等词修饰时,关系词一般用that

      • eg.This is the best novel that I have ever read.
    • 先行词即有人又有物,只能用that

      • eg.We’re talking about the piano and the pianist that were in the concert we attended last night.
    • that的使用禁忌:

      that使用有禁忌

      介词后面不考虑,

      逗号后面他不去

      换个which来代替。

二、 介词+关系代词

考点01 介词+关系代词

  • The man to whom you speak is a teacher.
    =The man whom you speak to is a teacher.

    The city _in which she lives is far away.
    =The city which she lives in is far away.

    • 先行词是人,介词后用whom

      先行词是物,介词后用which

      介词的选取问题

考点02 关系副词=介词+which

  • 这是我们一起学习的大学

    This is the college where we study together.

    This is the college in which we study together.

    总结:where = in which

  • when = 介词 +which

    year = in which

    day = on which

    期间 = during which

  • why = for which

考点03 介词+关系代词的常见两种结构

  • the+名词+of+which/whom

    结构中名词和后面的关系代词为所属关系

    • eg.This is the book the cover of which is designed by Lucy.
  • 表示部分的词语+of+which/whom(物用which;人用whom)

    • some,most,either,neither,both,none,all,every,each,数词,分数/百分比,最高级等

第五节:状语从句

什么是状语从句?

eg: I will go shopping tomorrow.

I will visit my parents when I have time.

  • 含义:在主从复合句中,充当状语的从句
  • 分类:按照功能分九类
  • 位置:可位于句前,也可位于句后

一、 让步状语从句

  • 让步状语从句连词分类:

    1. “尽管,尽然”类

      • although, though, even if, even though, while

        eg.Although he is poor, he often helps others.

        Though we are poor, we are still happy.

        She can’t find the answer even if she is smart.

      • as(需要特殊倒装)

        公式:adj/adv/n/v + as + 主 + 谓

        考点:

        ​ as放第二位

        ​ 后面是“主+谓”陈述语序

        ​ n前不加任何冠词

        eg: Smart as he is, he can’t find the answer.

    2. 疑问词+ever = no matter + 疑问词

      • whatever = no matter what(无论什么)

        考点:语序问题

        ​ whatever + 名词

        ​ whatever + 主 + 谓

        eg.Whatever you want to do, you should try your best.

      • however = no matter how(无论怎样)

        no matter how + adj/adv
        主+谓

        however
        +adj/adv+主+谓

        eg: We must finish the work , no matter how
        difficult it is.

      • whoever = no matter who(无论谁)

        eg: Whoever you are, you should turn off the
        light.

      • wherever = no matter where(无论哪里)

      • whenever = no matter when(无论何时)

        eg: Wherever he went , he carried a notebook
        with him.

        Whenever he tried to explain any new idea, he
        just couldn’t make himself understood.

二、 条件状语从句

  • IF

    含义:如果

    用法:主将从现

    eg.If it ranis tomorrow,the flight will be cancelled.

  • unless

    含义:如果不;除非=if not

    用法:和if一样(主将从现)

    eg: We won’t arrive there on time, unless we
    reserve the earliest flight.

    You will miss the bus unless you hurry uo.

  • as long as = so long as

    含义:只要

    用法:主将从现

    eg.As long as we work hard, we will succeed.

  • provided(taht) = providing(that)

    含义:假如

    eg: The car will be in good condition provided
    that it is taken care of carefully.

  • on condition that

    含义:条件是

    eg: I will lend you the book on condition thatyou return it to me in time.

  • in case

    含义:万一;如果

    eg.In case John comes, please tell him wait.

三、 原因状语从句

  • because(直接原因)

    位置:多位于句末

    考点:because和because of的区别

    ​ because(连词)+ 句子

    ​ because of(介词词组)+ 名词/代词

    eg: The boy was very upset because he couldn’t
    find his dog.

  • for

    含义:因为;由于

    用法:后跟补充说明的理由或原因

    ​ 常位于主句之后

    eg: I believe her, for she doesn’t lie to me.

    I can’t find Lucy, for I have never seen her.

  • as

    含义:因为,由于

    位置:经常放于句首

    eg: As it is very cold today, he decides not to
    go out.

  • since = now that

  • 含义:既然(表示对方已知的原因)

    eg: Since everyone has come, we can set off.

Now that everyone has come, we can set off.

  • considering that

    含义:鉴于,顾及到

    eg: Considering that many people were absent,
    we decided to put off the meeting.

  • in that

    含义:因为,由于

    eg: The place is great in that it is far from the
    downtown area.

四、 时间状语从句

  • 常用时间状语从句连词:

    • when,while,as(当…的时候)

    • before(在…以前),after(在…之后)

    • since(自从…以来)

    • not…until(直到…才)

    • as soon as(一…就)

      the moment = the minute

      no sooner… than = hardly…when…

五、 地点状语从句

  • 常用地点状语从句连词:

    where(在………地方)

    wherever(在任何地方)

    everywhere(在每个地方)

    eg: You should leave things where you can find
    them.

六、 结果状语从句

  • 常用结果状语从句连词:

​ so…that…如此…..以至于

​ such… that…如此….以至于

eg: He ran so quickly that we all couldn’t catch
up with him.

Mike is so honest a man that we all believe him.

七、 目的状语从句

  • 常用目的状语从句连词:

    so that..为了,以便于

    in order that…为了,以便

    lest,for fear that, in case 以免, 以防

    eg: I am studying hard so that I can go to a
    famous university.

八、 比较状语从句

  • 常用比较状语从句连词:

    1. as…as.… 像..…—样

      eg: He studies as hard as his brother.

      This film is as interesting as that one.

    2. than…比…..

      eg : The new library is twice larger than the old
      one.

      The youth of today are better off than we used
      to be.

      • 总结:倍数表达法

        • 倍数表达法一:

          A+谓语+倍数 +as +adj/adv 原级+as +B..
          eg:The new library is three times as large as the
          old one.

        • 倍数表达法二:

          A+谓语+倍数 +比较级+than+B…

          eg: The new library is twice larger than the old
          one.

    3. the+比较级…, the +比较级….…(越…就越…)

      eg: The harder you work, the luckier you will be.

九、 方式状语从句

  • 常用方式状语从句连词:

​ as(按照)

​ just as(正如)

​ as if,as though(好像)

eg: We must do as our teacher tells us (to do).
He looks as if he is angry.

第六节:名词性从句

什么是名词性从句?

​ 含义:
在主从复合句中,充当主语、宾语、表语、同位语从句

​ 分类:按照所作成分可分为四类

1.主语从句

  • His jod is boring.

  • What he does every day is boring.

    • 位置:常在与句首,主机谓语动词前

      eg.Taht I love you is true.

      That we finish our task early is necessary.

      • It necessary that we finish our task early.

        It作形式主语,真正的主语是that从句

2.宾语从句

  • I don’t like his job.

  • I don’t what he does every day.

  • 位置:常位于动词、介词之后

    eg:I believe that you will pass the exam.

    I think about what I should do.

    I think it important that I will never give up.

    it作形式宾语,真正的宾语是that从句

3.表语从句

  • This is his job.

  • This is what he does every day.

  • 位置:常跟在系动词后(be动词、感官系动词)

    eg:Our plan is that we will get married next year.

    It seems that it is going to snow.

4.同位语从句

  • I know Ma Yun,a teacher.

  • I know the new that he doesn’t like money.

  • 常放在抽象名词后,对其进行解释说明,通常有that引导

    eg:That is the fact that he passed the CET-6.

    • 常见的抽象名词:

      fact、news、idea、doubt、conclusion(结论)、

      evidence(证据)

练习:判断下列是哪种从句?

  • That I love you is true.
  • He says that he loves me.
  • Our plan is that we will get married next year.
  • The news that Mary passed away is amazing.

考点01 名词性从句语序问题

  • 名词性从句使用陈述语序:

    引导词+主语+谓语

eg:你是谁?

Who are you?

请忘记你是谁。

Please forget who you are.

  • 名词性从句的语序题解题步骤:
    • 如果选项中的引导词没有放在从句最前面,
      排除!
    • 如果引导词后面不是“主+谓”的形式,排除!
    • 剩下选项即为正确答案。

考点02 名词性从句引导词的选用

  • 引导词的分类:

    • 连接词:that

    • 连接词:whether/if

    • 连接代词:what,which,who,whom,-ever

    • 连接副词:when,where,why,how,-evr

    1. 连接词:that

      • 连接作用

      • 没有任何含义

      • 不作任何成分

      • 只有在引导宾语从句时才可以省略

        eg: I believe that he is right.

    2. 连接词:whether/if

      • 连接作用

      • 有含义:“是否”(不确定的含义)

      • 在从句中不作任何成分

      • 任何情况下都不可省略

        eg:Whether he will agree is unknown.

      补充:

      • whether和if的区别

        表“是否”含义,只能用whether的情况

        • whether…or not

          当后面跟or not 时用whether(固定搭配),
          or not可紧跟whether后,也可分开。

          eg: I didn’t know whether or not he had arrived
          in Beijing.

        • 置于句首的主从

        • 同位语从句和表从

        • 介词+whether

        • whether to do

    3. 连接代词:what

      • 连接作用

      • 指代所说的话、所做的事儿或所看见的东西
        (不可指代人,除人之外都可以指代)

      • 在从句中作主语、宾语或表语

        eg:What he said made me happy.

    4. 连接代词:which

      • 连接作用

      • 有含义:“哪一个”

      • 指代物,在从句中作主语、宾语

      • which+名词

        eg:There are three books here.I don’t know
        which book I should choose.

    5. 连接代词:who

      • 连接作用

      • 不可指物

      • 指代人

      • 在从句中作主语/宾语

        eg: I want to know who gives you the book.

    6. 连接代词:whom

      • 连接作用

      • 指代人

      • 在从句中作宾语

        eg: I want to know whom the car belongs to.

    7. 连接代词:-ever

      • whoever 无论谁(主格)

        • 连接作用

        • 指代人

        • 在从句中作主语/宾语

          eg: Whoever comes back first is the winner.

      • whomever

            无论谁(宾格)
      • whatever 无论什么

      • whichever 无论哪一个

    8. 连接副词:when

      含义:什么时候,何时

      eg: I ask him when he will be back to pick me
      up.

    9. 连接副词:where

      含义:什么地方,何地

      eg: Where she lives hasn’t been found out.

    10. .连接副词:why

      含义:为什么

      eg: She explained why she failed in the maths
      exam
      .

    11. 连接副词:how

      含义:如何,怎样

      eg: I asked him how we could get the tickets
      for the New Year Party
      .

    12. 连接副词:-ever

  - whenever
        无论何时    
  - wherever
        无论何地
  - however    无论怎样

考点03 形式主语和形式宾语

  • 代词it来充当形式主语和形式宾语:

    • It is necessary that we finish our task early.
    • I think it important that we save water.
  • 形式主语的常考句型:

    • It is likely that …可能…

    • It is no wonder that…难怪…, 不足为奇…

    • It is reported that… 据报道…

    • It is said that…据说…

    • It is known that…众所周 知…

    • It happens+that 从句
      碰巧…

      eg: It happens that I met her in the street this
      morning.

    • It occurs to sb +that 从句 某人突然想起…

      eg: It suddenly occurred to him that he had left
      his keys in the office.

    • think + it + adj
      +
      that 从句/to do…

      think/consider/find/make/regard/feel/believe

考点04 同位语从句

  • That is the fact that he passed the CET-6.

    同位语从句:抽象名词+从句解释说明作用;

    ​ that作引导词,不充当句子成分

    注意区别定语从句:

    That is the book that he bought last week.

    定语从句:先行词+从句,修饰限定作用;

    ​ that作关系代词,替代先行词在从句充当基本成分

  • 常考抽象名词:

    • belief , idea/view/opinion, doubt ,
      conclusion

      信仰观点怀疑结论

    • suggestion/advice , fact , proof/evidence,
      truth

      建议事实证明真相

    • news/information , promise, plan ,
      possibility

      消息承诺计划的可能性

    • 通常看到以上单词,首选that来引导同位语从句

      • 特殊情况doubt:
      • 肯定句:whether
      • 否定句:that
      • 句型:There is no doubt that …毫无疑问..
  • 补充:有关reason的句型

    • The reason why…
      定从
    • The reason is that …
      表从
    • The reason (why) … is that ..
      定从/表从
    • That is why.. 表从

第七节:主谓一致

什么是主谓一致?

eg: A cat is sleeping.

Three cats are sleeping.

考点01 谓语V用单数意义的常考情况

  1. 主语抽象表单一

    • 动名词短语

      eg: Saying is easier than doing.

    • 不定式短语

      eg: To teach others is to teach yourself.

    • 疑问词+to do

      eg: What to do next is up to you.

    • 主语从句

      eg: Whatever he says is of no importance.

  2. 时重长度与价值

    时间、重量、长度、距离、金额等

    eg: Thirty dollars is enough.

    Five kilometers is a long way.

    Ten years has passed since he left.

  3. 自身含义是单数的不定代词

    either , neither , each , every

    以上词修饰主语,谓语动词统一用单数意义的

    eg: Every means has been tried but without
    much result.

    Neither of the plans suits me.

  4. 学科、国家及组织等专有名词

    常用学料名词常以“-ics结尾

    mathematics(数学) physics(物理)

    economics(经济学) politics(政治学)

    statistics(统计学)

                          electronics(电子学)

    the United Nations 联合国

    the New York Times 纽约时报

  5. many a,more than one 连单用单

    接单数名词,且动词用单三形式

    eg: More than one person has been infected
    with the disease.

    Many a student was asked to write an article.

考点02 谓语V用复数意义的常考情况

  1. 由and,both…and…连接的并列主语

eg: Both boys and girls like watching TV.

注意:当and连接的两个名词只有一个定冠词the
修饰时,看成单数。

The singer and dancer is on the stage.

The singer and the dancer are on the stage.

  1. 人们加警察,家禽并牛群,公众年轻人
    服装鞋袜裤手套,常作复数没问题

    people police poultry(家禽)cattle(牛群)
    public(公众)youth(年轻人)
    clothes(衣服)shoes(鞋子)socks(袜子)
    trousers(裤子)gloves(手套)

eg: The Chinese people are brave.

  1. the + adi表示一类人

    the rich富人

               the poor穷人

    the young年轻人

       the old老人

eg: The rich are not always happy.

考点03 谓语动词可单可复情况

  1. 就近原则

    口诀:两or一nor一but,就近原则记心间

    .. or …
    或者 either… or …或者

    neither … nor …两者都不
    not only …but also…不仅…而且…

    There be…

  2. 就远原则

    口诀:和也除了包括than,就远原则记心间

    和:with/together with/along with

    也:as well as

    除了:except/except for/besides/in addition to

    包括:including

    than:rather than 而不是

  3. 许多、一些、百分数,是单是复看名词的单复数

    plenty of 许多

                    part of一部分
                                half of 一半

    most of大多数 some of一些

                                 rest of 剩余

    ten percent of

                   two thirds of

    eg: Four-fifths of the buildings are destoryed.

  4. 集体名词,整体用单数,成员用复数

    group 小组 小组成员

    class 班里 班级的同学

    family

           家庭                    家人

    team 队

                      队员

    army 军队

                  军队的士兵
  5. 若与冠词相联系,请君一定细辨析

    • 在定语从句中

      one of …who /that…
      复数

      the (only)one of .….who/that…单数

    • the number of .…. 的数量 单数

      a number of
      许多

                          复数

第八节:特殊句型

一、 倒装句

  • I finish my homework.
  • He likes the book.
  • She opened the window.

考点01 识别倒装的结构

  • I have been working here for seven years.

  • The boy was hit by a car.

  • He can marry a pretty wife.

    谓语动词一个单词

                                    独立谓语

    谓语动词两个单词(或者2个以上)

       复合谓语
  • 助动词的分类:

    do类:
    do does did

    have类:have has had

    be类:
    am is are was were

    will类:
    will would

    情态助动词:will(would)
    shall(should)
    may(might)
    must(must)
    can(could)

考点02 半倒装具体使用情况

  1. 否定词放于句首后用半倒装

    • never/seldom/ few/ little/ not/nowhere
      rarely(很少)/barely(几乎不)
    • by no means /in no case / in no way/ under
      no circumstance/ at no time/on no account
  2. Only(只有)+状语,放于句首后用半倒装

    by + doing
    方式

    when/after/before…
    时间

    in/at/on …
    地点

    if条件

    eg: Only in this way can we have a better future.

  3. so/such放于句首,后用半倒装

    So+形/副+半倒+that从句

    Such+名+半倒+that从句
    含义:如此…以至于

    eg : So fast does he run that he is far ahead of
    others.

  4. 反复倒装

    题目构成:句1+句2

    解题方法:

    句1是肯定句:So+助/情态v+主语
    “也是”

    句1是否定句:Neither/Nor +助/情态v+主语
    “也不是”

-I like English.

-So do I.

-I don’t drink coffee.

-Neither do I.

  1. 四大加分句型

    • “一…就…”句型:

      Hardly/Scarcely+had+主语+done+when+从句

      No sooner+had+主语+done+than+从句

    • Not only … but also …句型

           “不但…而且…”

      Not only 半倒装…, but also 不用半倒装

      eg: Not only can Tom sing so well, but also all
      his family members are good singers.

    • Not until… 知道…才…

      eg: Not until next week will the sports meetingbe held.

      Not until I came home did my mother go to
      bed last night.

  2. 强调句基本句型:

    It is/was+被强调部分+that/who +其它

    Alipay affects people’s life in China.

    强调主语:**It is Alipay that affects people’s life in China.**

    强调宾语:
    It is people’s life that Alipay affects in China.

    强调地点状语:
    It is in China that Alipay affects people’s life.

    • 如何判断一个句子是不是强调句?

      判断方法:去掉It is/was..that,句子仍完整。

      eg : It was 3 o’clock that I came back home.(×)

      It was at 3 o’clock that I came back home.(√)

  3. 反义疑问句

    反义疑问句通常形式:(前肯后否,前否后肯)

    若陈述句部分是肯定形式,则反义疑问句部分用否定

    若陈述句部分是否定形式,则反义疑问句部分用肯定

    eg : They work hard, don’t they?

    You didn’t go home, did you?

常考特殊情况:当陈述部分为主从复合句时

反义疑问句部分:以一般应和主句保持一致

He doesn’t say she will come, does he?

She believes what you say, doesn’t she?

但当陈述句部分是:I think\believe\suppose等,

反义疑问句部分:和从句的主语和谓语动词保持一致

I don’t think Tom will come here, will he?

I believe that our experiment will succeed,won’t it?

中篇:基础语法

第一节:名词

考点01 名词的数

  1. 可数名词的规则变化

    • 一般直接在名词后:
      +S

      “两本书”怎么说? two books

    • 特殊结尾的单词,以s,sh,ch,x结尾的:
      +es

      “五个盘子”
      five dishes

      “六个盒子”
      six boxes

    • 以y结尾的:

      辅音+y的变化:y一
      i+ es

      baby——>babies

      stofy——>Stories

      city——>citles

      以y结尾的:
      元音+y的变化:直接加s

      boy——>boys

      toy——>toys

    • 一些以字母f或fe结尾的单词:

      把f或fe变v,再+es

      树叶:leaf

      狼:wolf

      口诀巧记:

      树叶半数自己黄,leaf half self

      妻子拿刀去割粮,wife knife

      架后窜出一只狼,shelf wolf

      就像小偷逃命亡。thief life

 特殊情况直接+s

 屋顶:roof

 证据:proof

 信心:
 belief
  • 以o结尾的单词,多数在词尾:+s

    photo
    piano
    zoo

    以o结尾的单词特殊情况:在词尾+es

    巧记:黑人英雄坐在火山上吃着西红柿和土豆听回声

    Negro hero volcano tomato potato echo

  1. 可数名词的不规则变化

    • 中间元音字母的变化

      man -men

              woman- women

      foot - feet

               tooth - teeth

      goose-geese

    • 单复数同形

      fish - fish
      deer - deer
      sheep - sheep
      means - means
      species - species

  2. 特殊变化形式

    child - children

    phenomenon - phenomena(现象)

    ox - oxen

    mouse - mice

  3. “各国人”的变化

    a Chinese - two Chinese

    a Japanese - two Japanese

    a Swiss - two Swiss

    an Englishman - two Englishmen

    a Frenchman - two Frenchmen

    a Dutchman - two Dutchmen

    a Russian - two Russians

    a German - two Germans

    记忆口诀:

    中日瑞不变,英法荷变中间,多数s加后面

  4. 不可数名词

    • 常见的不可数名词:

      advice建议 news消息,新闻 information信息

      weather天气 air空气
      wood木头,木材

      knowledge知识 traffic交通 luggage/baggage行李

    • 不可数名词“复数”表其他含义

      wood 木材

                                             woods森林

      water水 waters水域,河流

      time 时间 times时代;倍;次

考点02 名词的量

  1. 单位词

    eg: a piece of advice

    three pieces of advice

    a bottle of water

    a bunch of flowers

    a pair of shoes

考点03 名词的格

  • 名词所有格

    • ‘s属格

      这个老师的书
      the teacher’s book

      玛丽的老公
      Mary’s husband

      这些男孩们的手机 these boys’ mobile phones

    • of属格

      书的封皮
      the cover of the book

      团队的未来
      the future of the team

    • 双重属格:

      玛丽的朋友中的一个
      ends
      a friend of Mary’s

      我的朋友中的一个
      a friend of mine

考点04 名词跟介词的搭配

  1. 名词+for

    charge for要价,收费

need for
对……的需求

reason for 对…..的原因

sympathy for 对…..表示同情

substitution for 代替….

  1. 名词+in

    success in 在……方面成功

    confidence in
    对……的信心

    expert in
    某方面……的专家

    belief in
    相信………

    advance in……的进展

  2. 名词+on

    concentration on 关注

    discussion on 讨论

    emphasis on
    强调

    impression on 对.…的印象

stress on 强调……

comment on 对….…的评论

dependence on
依赖于……

effect on
对……的影响

impact on
对……的影响

influence on 对……的影响

  1. 名词+with

    combination with 与.….….的结合

    contact with 与……的联系

    association with
    与……的联系

  2. 名词+to

    access to
    接近……

    answer to
    ……的答案

    approach to
    ……的方法

    attitude 对……的态度

    toindifference to 对.….…漠不关心

    response to 响应.…..

    contribution to 对….的贡献

    limit to
    ……的限制

    objection to反对……

    reaction to 对…的反应

考点05 常考名词短语

  • make a profit on 在….上获利
  • pay in cash用现金支付
  • have an effect >on 对….产生影响
  • play a role in 起…作用
  • make room for 给..腾地方
  • have a qood sense of direction 方向感很好
  • take advantage of 利用…..
  • do sb.a favor帮某人一个忙
  • on second thoughts 再经考虑
  • lose one’s temper发脾气

考点06 形近词辨析

  • context(上下文,语句;发生背景)

    contest(竞赛,比赛)

    content(内容;目录)

    contact(接触;联络)

    contrast (对比,对照)

    contract(合同,合约)

  • latitude:纬度

    altitude:海拔高度

    gratitude:感激之情

    attitude:态度,看法

    multitude:大量;众多

  • effect:影响,效果

    effort:努力

  • source:来源,出处

    resourse:(自然等)资源,财力

  • vacation:假期

    vocation:工作,职业

考点07 近义词辨析

  • ache:(身体某一部位)持久的疼痛,隐痛

    suffering:(身体或精神上)疼痛,痛苦,折磨

    eg: Death finally bring an end to her sufferig.

  • damage:(有形)损坏,破坏

    injury:(事故等)伤害,损害

  • accident:(交通)事故

    incident:次要的小事件

    event:重大的事件

  • sight:视力,看到(常指无意识地看到)

    look:看(主动地朝…看
    有意以

    view:风景,风光;观点

    glance:匆忙一瞥,闪现

第二节 代词

考点01 人称代词主语和宾语对的用法

  • 主语: I we he

    ***she***

    it
    they
    you

  • 宾语: me us him her
    it
    them
    you

  • -I like dogs. Please give me two dogs.

    -You should take care of them carefully.

考点02 两类物主代词使用规则

  • 形容词物主代词:my our your his her its their

  • 名词性物主代词:mine ours yours his hers its theirs

  • -Is this your dog?

    -No , mine is at home. It is hers.

考点03 反身代词

  • myself
    yourself
    himself
    herself
    itself
    ourselves yourselves themselves

  • enjoy oneself 玩得开心

    dress oneself 打扮

seat oneself
就座

call oneself
自称

teach oneself 自学

depend on oneself 靠某人自己

devote oneself to
献身于

help oneself to 自用,自取(食物等)

make oneself at home 不要客气

by oneself 独自

be oneself 显得自然

考点04 指示代词的基本用法

  1. this或these:

    • 常指时间或空间较近的人或物

      eg: This is a tiger.

    • 通常指代后面提到过的事物

      eg: What I want tell you is this: the meeting is
      put off.

  2. that或those:

    • 常指时间或空间较远的人或物

      eg: That is a deer.

    • 通常指代前面提到过的事物

      eg:He had a bad cold.That is why he didn’t
      attend the meeting.

考点05 指示代词在比较级中的运用

为了避免与前面名词重复,可以用that或those来
代替

eg: The population in Shanghai is larger than
that in Guangzhou.

Computers made in Nanjing are just as good as

those made in Shanghai.

考点06 both,either,neither,all,none

  1. both:(两者)都

    常用结构:both…and…

    eg: Both Mary and Tom are my friends.

  2. either:(两者中)任一个

    常用结构:either … or…要么…要么…

    eg: Either you or I am going there.

  3. neither:(两者)都不

    常用结构:neither .… nor…

    eg: Neither you nor Tom is my friends.

  4. all:(三者或三者以上)都

    eg: All are in favor of the proposal.

  5. none:(三者或三者以上)都不,一个也没有

    none:既可以指人,也可以指物

    搭配:none of

考点07 other,another等不定代词

  1. other :
    other:另外的,其他的

    other+可数名词复数

    eg: Do you have other questions?

  2. others :
    others:另一些(后不加名词)

    搭配: some … others…

    eg: Some students like English and others like
    physics.

  3. the other :

    the other:另一个的,另外的

    搭配: one … the other…

    eg: I have two dogs. One is white, the other is
    black.

  4. the others:

    the others:另外一些(后不加名词)

    eg: There are 40 boys. Two boys will go to the
    zoo, and the others will stay at home.

  5. another :

    1. 又一,再一

      eg: I want to eat another apple.

    2. 另外几(个、天、周等)

      eg: We need anothor three days.

考点08 常考复合不定代词

  • some-, any-, every-, no-

  • -body, -one, -thing

第三节 动词

考点01 实意动词

  • 实意动词的分类:

    1. 及物动词(vt.):后面直接跟宾语

      eg: He writes a book.

      A book is written by him.

    2. 不及物动词(vi.):

      后面不能直接跟宾语

      eg: An accident happened.

    3. 既可作及物动词也可作不及物动词

      eg: I sing.

      I sing a song.

      I study.

      I study a problem.

  • 常见的及物动词:

    • forget
      visit raise
      ·remember
      arouse

    • spend
      do
      finish
      say

    • enjoy
      love…

      • eg: You visit the White House.

        I enjoy my trip.

        She finishes her homework.

        I spend the winter vacation in Shanghai.

  • 常见的不及物动词:

    work
    stay
    go
    come

    live
    listen
    look
    arrive

    depend
    suffer
    arise
    rise

    happen occur

    eg:I work in Guangzhou.
    I come.

    An accident happenned last week.

    I study every day.

    The sun rises.

    I arrive at the train station yesterday.

考点02 系动词

这类动词意思不完整,所以无法单独存在,后需
主不表
要跟表语。

eg : I am a teacher.
She becomes a teacher.

She becomes a teacher.

  1. be动词

  2. 关于“变化”的系动词:

    • become(变成)
      用法:指从一个状态向另一个状态的变化

      eg : She becomes beautiful.

      She becomes a good student.

    • turn(变成)
      用法:

      turn通常用与颜色或情绪相关的形容词作表语

      eg : The leaves turn yellow.

      His face turned red with anger.

    • get(变成)
      用法:

      get常用“生气”或“激动”的adj作表语

      eg : He get mad.

    • go(转变成)

      用法:go主要指一种由强到弱或由好到坏的变化

      eg : In hot weather, meat goes bad.

    • grow(变成)

      用法:常指逐渐地变成新状态,强调渐变的过程

      eg : The girl grew thinner and thinner.

      The sky grew dark.

  3. 感官系动词:

    look看起来

    sound
    smell

    taste尝起来

    摸走味
    feel

    后跟形容词,而不跟副词

    eg : His idea sounds good.
    The food smells good.
    The cloth feels soft.

    The flowers look beautiful.

  4. “似平好像”系动词

    seem = appear

    用法:seem之后跟不定式短语作表语

    eg: He seems to know it.

    He seems (to be) happy.
    The situation doesn’t seem (to be) so desperate.

  5. “保持”系动词

    keep , stay, remain

    eg: He keeps silent at the meeting.

    The price remains unchanged.

考点03 助动词

助动词:置于动词前,使动词能表现出时态、语
态、否定句、疑问句等变化。

  • eg : I must go now.

    I have lived in Zhengzhou for ten years.

    Do you love me?

  • 助动词的分类:

    • be类:am,is,are,was,were

    • have类:has,had
      have

    • do类:do,does,did

    • 情态助动词

      will (would), shall (should), can(could),
      may(might), must(must), have to, need, dare(敢),
      ought to(应该),

考点04 情态动词+动词原形

  1. will(would)

    “将,将要”,表达将来或意愿

    eg: I will go shopping tomorrow.

    补充:would rather(=had rather)

    would rather+ do sth

    would rather + do… than do…

    eg: I would rather go home.

    I would rather die than marry him.

  2. should(shall)

    “应当”,表达义务或责任=ought to

    eg: We should be kind to others.

    Students should develop a good attitude
    towards tests.

  3. can (could)

    “能,能够”,常常表示一种能力
    =be able to

    eg:I can play the guitar.

  4. may (might)

    常表许可或可能性,“可以”
    “可能”之意
    (许可)

    eg: May I take the book?

    It may be true.

    The light may cause damage to human eyes.

  5. must (must)

    “必须”,通常表示强制

    eg: You must finish the work.

  6. 补充:must和have to
    eg:

    You must love your country.(强制的必须)

    You have to love your country.(有勉强意味)

    否定形式含义:

    mustn’t“绝不可以,禁止”

    don’t have to“不必,不需要”

  7. need

    • “需要”,既可作实意动词,也可作情态助动词

      实意动词用法:
      常用肯定句型:need to do sth;need sth.

      eg: He needs to go home.

      He doesn’t need to go home.

    • 情态助动词用法:
      常用于否定句型:needn’t do sth.

      eg:I needn’t go home.

考点05 情态动词对现在的推测

  • 对现在的推测:

    must be…一定…..

    may/may not be…或许,也许…

    can’t/couldn’t be..一定不,一定没有.…..

    eg: She must be tired now.

考点06 情态动词表对过去推测

  • 用法
    :

    may/might have done.过去可能已经做了某事

    must have done.过去肯定做了某事(不用于否定结构)

    could have done.过去本能做但未做

    can’t/couldn’t have done.过去不可能做过某事

    should have done.过去本应该做却未做

    shouldn’t have done.过去本不需要做却做

    ought to have done.过去本应该做却未做

    oughtn’t to have done.过去本不需要做却做

    needn’t have done.过去本没必要做却做了

考点07·常考动词搭配

  1. turn动词搭配:

    turn down 调小音量;拒绝

    turn up调高音量;出现

    turn on 打开设备

    turn off关闭设备

    turn into 变成

    turn in 上交,交出

    turn out结果是,制作,生产

    turn over翻转;移交;仔细考虑

    turn to变成;求助于

    turn from对……感到厌恶

  2. put动词搭配:

    put aside储存,留用(金钱/时间)

    put away 把.…收拾起来放好

    put down 记下,放下

    put forward 提出

    put off 推迟

    put on穿上,戴上;上演

    put out 熄灭

    put up提出;建造

    put up with容忍,忍受

  3. set动词搭配:

    set up 创立,建立

    set about 开始着手

    set aside 把…….搁置一旁,留出

    set down 放下,记下

    set free 释放(某人)

    set off 出发,启程

    set out动身,启程,开始

    set back 推迟,延缓

  4. break动词搭配:

    break up打碎;(关系)破裂,分手,离婚

    break down 破坏;停止运转,(机器)出故障

    break in打断谈话,插嘴

    break into闯进;突然开始(笑,哭等)

    break out爆发,侵袭(灾难/疾病)

    break through 突破进展

    break off停顿;结束;脱落

    break away 离开;背叛

  5. call 动词搭配:

    call in召集;收回

    call off取消;叫走

    call on拜访;号召;要求

    call up使想起;征召服役

    call for要求,需要

考点08 近义词词义辨析

  • affect v.影响,直接影响

effect n.影响have …effect on

influence n&v影响(指潜移默化的影响)

impact n&v影响(冲击力较强的影响)

  • image-20220301201712649

考点09 形近词词义辨析

  • rise (vi.
    )(数量或水平的)增加;(日月星辰)上升,升起

    arise (vi.
    (希望、困难、讨论、问题等)产生,
    出现

    raise(vt.
    举起;增加,提高(数量、水平)

    arouse(vt.)激起,引起(感情、态度)

  • clash:冲突,打斗

    crash:(车)碰撞,(飞机)坠毁

    eg. His car crashed into a bus yesterday.

    The plane crashed after take-off.

    flash:闪光,闪现

    crush:粉碎,压扁

  • confirm:(提供证据)证实,证明,确认

    conform:顺从,顺应;遵守,服从(法律等)

    confine:限定,限制

    inform:通知,告知

第四节 形容词

什么是形容词
·

用来修饰名词代词的一类词,表示名词、代词
的性质和特征

eg : This is an interesting story.

The dog is clever.

形容词的功能

  1. 定语

    eg:This is an ins=tereting book.

  2. 表语

    eg:This book is interesting.

  3. 补语

    eg:We find this bonk interesting.

考点01 形容词作前置定语

  • 单个形容词:一般放在所修饰的名词之前

    eg:一个漂亮的女孩 a beautiful girl

    一只可爱的狗
    a cute dog

    一个干净的房间 a clean room

    思考多个形容词如何表达?

    ​ 一个漂亮的法国小女孩
    a beautiful little French girl

    ​ 一朵美丽的小红花 a beautiful little red flower

    ​ 一条强壮的黄色大狼狗
    a strong big yellow wolf dog

    • 多个形容词修饰一个名词的排列口诀:

      美小圆旧黄,法国木书房

      限定词:冠词、数词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代

      eg:一个黑色新钢笔 a new black pen

      这座古老的中式石桥
      the old Chinese stone bridge

考点02 形容词作后置定语

作后置定语(五种情况)

  1. 通常以a-开头的adj,修饰名词应后置,不用于名词前

    如: alike, alone. alive, asleep, awake

    eg:一个睡看的婴儿 a baby asleep

    一个活着的男人 a man alive

  2. 某些以-able-ible结尾的形容词常作后置定语

    available , imaginable(可想象的), possible, visible

    eg : Do you have a room available?

    She will be available this afternoon.

    考点:available常作后置定语

    ​ 指物:可获得的;可购得的;可找到的

    ​ 指人:有空的

  3. adj修饰复合不定代词,应后置

    some-,any-,every-,no-

    -body,-one,-thing

    eg : There is something interesting in the
    newspaper.

  4. present,absent常作后置定语

    present作“出席的,到场的”之意,不用于名词前

    absent作“缺席的,不在的”之意,不用于名词前

    eg : All the students present can get a book
    today.

    All the students absent won’t get the book.

  5. 长、宽、高、深及年龄,莫忘定语如何放

    eg : The river is about 200 meters long and 10
    meters wide.

    I am 20 years old.
    Mount Qomolangma is 8844.43 meters high.

    The Yellow River is about 2.5 meters deep.

由分词转化而来的形容词

过去分词(-ed)转化而来的adj:用来修饰人

现在分词(-ing)转化而来的adj:用来修饰物

巧记:人-d物-ing

eg : This is an interesting book.

He is interested in this book.

  • excite 使兴奋

    excited:感到兴奋的

    exciting:令人兴奋的

  • interest使感兴趣

    interested:感到有趣的

    interesting:有趣的

  • surprise 使惊奇

    surprised:感到惊奇的

    surprising:令人惊奇的

  • disappoint使失望

    disappointed:感到失望的

    disappointing:令人失望的

  • discourage 使灰心;使泄气

    discouraged:感到气馁的

    discouraging:令人泄气的

  • annoy使恼怒

    bored:厌倦的

    boring:令人厌倦的

  • confuse使困惑

    confused:感到困惑的

    confusing:令人困惑的

  • please使愉快

    pleased:感到高兴的

    pleasing:令人愉快的

  • bore使厌烦

    bored:厌倦的

    boring:令人厌倦的

  • embarrass使尴尬

    embarrassed:感到尴尬的

    embarrassing:令人尴尬的

口固定搭配:

  1. be + adj + about +宾语

    eg: be worried about 对…担心

    ​ be anxious about 对…焦虑

    ​ be concerned about 对.….关心

    ​ be particular about 对…..挑剔

    She is always particular about her boyfriend.

  2. be + adj + at +宾语

    eg:be good at 擅长

    ​ be amazed at 对…吃惊

    ​ be disgusted at 对.….厌恶

    ​ be surprised at 对…吃惊

    They were amazed at what their mother did.

  3. be + adj +for+宾语

    eg: be responsible for 对…负责

    ​ be famous for 以…闻名

    The writer is famous for his stories.

    Everyone should be responsible for his work.

  4. be + adj+ in +宾语

    eg: be interested in 对.….感兴趣

    ​ be absorbed in 专心于

    ​ be involved in卷入,涉及到

    We should be absorbed in our study.

    Mary was involved in an accident.

  5. be+d+of+语

    eg: be ashamed of 对…羞愧

    ​ be capable of 有能力

    ​ be fond of 喜爱

    ​ be proud of 骄傲

    ​ be worthy of 值得…

  6. be + adj + to +宾语

    eg:be sensitive to 对.….敏感

    ​ be devoted to 致力于

    ​ be similar to 与…相似

    ​ be superior to 优于

    ​ be inferior to 劣于

    ​ be addicted to 沉迷于

  7. be +adj+with+宾语

    eg: be popular with 受…欢迎

    ​ be satisified with 对.…满意

    ​ A be familiar with B. = B be familiar to A.

考点03 形近词词义辨析

  • respective:分别的,各自的得

    respectable:值得尊敬的,体面的

    respected:受到尊敬的

    respectful:尊敬的,有礼貌的,恭敬的

    respecting:关于(prep.)

  • sensible:理智的,明智的

    sensitive:敏感的,善解人意的,灵敏的

    sentimental:情感的,伤感的

  • late:晚的,迟的;晚期的,接近末期的

    last:最后的,最末的;上一个的

    later:较晚的
    latter:后者的

  • sufficient:足够的,充分的

    efficient:有能力的,有效率的

    effective:有效的,起作用

  • average:(水平等)平常的,平均的

    normal:(精神及身体状况等)正常的

    usual:通常的,寻常的(常指发生频率高的事)

    general:大致的,全体的,普遍的

    ordinary:普通的,平常的;平凡的;平淡无奇的

    regular:有规律的;频繁的,定期的

  • silent:不说话的,沉默的;无声的,寂静的

    queit:宁静的,安静的

    still:静止的,不动的,没有活力的

    calm:镇定的,冷静的,沉着的

第五节 副词

一、 副词的构词法

  • 一般以-ly结尾为副词

    eg: normally , hardly , usually , probably ,
    willingly(乐意地),generally(普遍地),
    carefully,directly,clearly(清楚地),
    greatly(非常,极大地)……

    • 特殊情况:一些以-ly结尾的可以用作形容词

      friendly(友好的),deadly(致命的),
      lonely(孤独的),likely(可能的),
      lively(充满活力的),lovely(可爱的)……

二、 副词的功能

  1. 修饰动词:此时副词通常置于动词之后

    eg: He studies hard.

  2. 修饰形容词:此时副词通常置于该形容词之前

    eg: He is very kind.

  3. 修饰副词:此时副词通常置于该副词之前

    eg: He studies very diligently.

  4. 修饰全句:此时副词通常置于句首

    eg: Fortunately, he did not die.

三、 enough的用法

  1. adj.足够的,充足的

    用法:修饰名词,通常置于名词之前

    eg: They have enough money to buy the
    tickets.

  2. adv.足够地,充分地,充足地

    用法:用于形容词、副词、动词之后

    eg: She is old enough to decide for herself.

  3. adj + enough to do sth.足够..做某事

    This house isn’t big enough for us.

    He couldn’t earn enough to support the family.

四、 so和such的用法区别

  1. so(adv.)表程度,含义为:如此

    用法:可以修饰形容词或副词:so+adj./adv.

    常用结构:so+adj.+a(n)+可数名词单数

    eg: She is so beautiful.

    She is so beautiful a girl.

    • 特殊用法:so+many/few/much/little+名词

      eg:so many/few flowers(如此多/少的花)

      so much/little money(如此多/少的钱)

  2. such: (adj.)
    表程度,含义为:如此的

    用法:修饰名词,结构为:such+n.

    ​ 常用结构如下:

    such + a(n)+ adj.+可数名词单数

    such +adj.+可数名词复数

    such +adj.+不可数名词

  3. every day 和everyday

    every day:每天

    everyday:平常的,日常的

第六节 比较等级

一、 原级比较

  1. 肯定式:as/so+adj./adv.的原级+as

    含义:一方和…另一方一样…

    eg:迪丽热巴和古力娜扎一样好看。

    Reba is as beautiful as Nazha.

    This film is as interesting as that one.

  2. 否定式:not as/so+adj./adv.的原级+as

    含义:一方不及另一方…

    eg:古力娜扎不如迪丽热巴好看。

    Nazha is not as beautiful as Reba.

  3. 注意:

    当as…as…句型中,两个as中间有名词,应用句型:

    as +adj.+a(n)+单数名词+as…

    as many/much/few/little +复数n/不可数n+ as…

    eg: She is as good a student as Mary.

二、 最高形式

  1. 规则变化:

    • 比较级在词尾+er

      最高级在词尾+est

      eg: tall- taller- tallest

      ​ hard- harder-hardest

      ​ clever-cleverer-cleverest

    • 以字母”e”结尾的,在词尾加-r和-st

      eg: nice - nicer - nicest

      fine - finer - finest

      simple - simpler - simplest

      large - larger - largest

    • 以辅音字母加“y”结尾的,变y为i再加-er和-est

      eg: easy - easier - easiest

      ​ early - earlier - earliest

    • 对于多音节和部分双音节词:

      词前加more表比较级

      词前加most表比较级

      eg: important- more important- most important

      famous- more famous- most famous

      popular- more popular- most popular

      careful-more careful-most careful

  2. 不规则变化:

    many/much- more -most

    good/well - better - best

    bad/badly/ill - worse -worst
    l

    ittle - less - least

    far - farther/further - farthest/furthest

    eg : I couldn’t walk any farther/further.

    The police decide to investigate further.

    old - older/elder - oldest/eldest

    年龄比较用older,oldest

    eg:He is older than me.

    家庭中的长幼顺序用elder,eldest

    eg:elder sister长姐

  3. 比较级+than

    eg: Mary works harder than Tom.

    Health is more important than wealth.

  4. 表达“越来越”含义

    单音节词:比较级+and+比较级

    多音节词:more and more + adj/adv

    eg: bigger and bigger

    more and more beautiful

  5. the+比较级+主谓.…,the+比较级+主谓…

    eg:The harder you work, the luckier you will
    be.

  6. 可以放在比较级前修饰比较级的词:

    口诀:四个A甚至仍旧没有任何的马骑,怎么走的相当远

    四个A:a little,a bit,a lot,a great deal

    甚至:even;仍旧:still;任何:any;

    many/much , rather, quite/fairly, far

    eg : He is much taller than me.

  7. 特殊情况:比较用原级,后用to

    superior高级的

    inferior下等的

    senior年长的

    junior年少的

    eg:The computer is superior to that one.

  8. 倍数表达法

    • 倍数表达法一:
      • A+谓语+倍数+比较级+than+B.
    • 倍数表达法二:
      • A+谓语+倍数+as +adj/adv原级+as+B.

    杨颖的眼睛比孙红雷的眼睛大三倍。

    Yang’s eyes are three times bigger than Sun’s
    eyes.

    杨颖的眼睛是孙红雷眼睛的四倍。

    Yang’s eyes are four times as big as Sun’s eyes.

第七节 连词

考点01 all的常考介词短语

  1. above all 最重要的是;尤其是

    eg: Above all, we should recognize our
    strengths and weaknesses.

  2. first of all 首先

    eg:First of all, we should make education
    universal.

  3. after all 毕竟

    eg:After all, no one knows me better than me.

  4. all in all总之,整体来说

    eg: All in all, Lifelong learning is essential to
    everyone.

  5. (not)…at all 一点也(不)

    eg:He didn’t allow smoking in his room,
    actually he didn’t allow his family to smoke at
    all.

  6. all over到处,遍地

    eg: I have stamps from all over the world.

  7. all around整个那一带,到处

    eg : Look at the companies all around you.

考点02 out of +n常考介词短语

  1. out of style过时的,不流行的

    反义短语:in style流行的

  2. out of fashion 过时的

  3. out of date 过时的,过期的

  4. out of control失去控制,不受约束

    反义短语:under control处于控制之下

  5. out of order(机器、设备等)出故障
    次序混乱,乱七八糟

    eg : My watch is out of order.

    The room was out of order.

  6. out of condition 身体不好,情况欠佳

    eg : I’m out of condition.

  7. out of danger 脱离险境

  8. out of place 不在适当的位置;

  9. out of service不适宜
    失效,停止运行

  10. out of sight看不见的

  11. out of temper 发怒的

  12. out of trouble 摆脱困境

  13. outof work失业

考点03 under+n常考介词短语

  1. under control处于控制之下,情况正常
  2. under threat 受到威胁
  3. under no circumstance绝不,任何情况下都不
  4. under discussion处于讨论之中
  5. under consideration 在考虑之中
  6. under age未成年
  7. under construction 在建设中
  8. under investigation 在调查中
  9. under repair 在修理中

考点04 介词on常考介词短语

  1. on purpose 故意地
  2. on duty值班
  3. on behalf of 代表
  4. on account of 由于
  5. on condition that… 在…条件下
  6. on holiday 在度假
  7. on the average平均
  8. on time准时
  9. on weekdays 在工作日

考点05 at的常考介词短语

  1. at least 至少

    eg:You should write at least 120 words.

  2. at first当初,起初

    eg:When he came for the interview, Sam felt
    nervous at first, but soon calmed down.

  3. at the same time与此同时

  4. at the age of…在…某人多少岁时

    eg : He could make a living at the age of seven.

  5. at the cost of 以…为代价

  6. at the expense of 以…为代价

  7. at the sight of 一看见..就…

    eg : Our hopes arose at the first sight of the
    doctor.

  8. at the risk of
    冒……险

  9. at the thought of -想起….

  10. at a speed of以……的速度

  11. be angry with sb.生某人的气

    be angry about sth.对某事生气

  12. in the course of 在…….过程中

  13. as a result of 作为………的结果,由于

  14. by means of 借助……的手段,依靠……的方法

  15. for the sake of 为了.…….起见

  16. in that case 如果那样的话

  17. in case免得,以防

  18. in no case 绝不,任何情况下都不

  19. in any case 在任何情况下,不管怎样

  20. for a moment片刻,一下

  21. in a moment立即,马上,一会儿

  22. for the moment 目前,暂时

  23. at the moment 此刻

  24. off the point离题,不切要领

  25. on the point 即将..时候;在….点上

  26. to the point 中肯,切中要害

  27. in the point 就..而言

考点六 besides,except,but,except for

  1. besides“除……之外还有”

    注意:包括所除的人或物

    eg: Besides his girlfriend, his mother also goes
    to see the movie.

    表达含义:女朋友和妈妈都去看了电影。

    Everyone has a girlfriend besides me.

    表达含义:我跟大家都有女朋友。

  2. except”(同类中)除去”

    注意:不包括所除的人或物

    eg: Everyone has a girlfriend except me.

    表达含义:大家都有女朋友,就我没有。

    The shop is open every day except Monday.

    表达含义:商店只有周一不营业。

  3. but“除了”

    注意:不包括所除的人或物

    eg:I have no friend friend but you.

    表达含义:除了你以外,我没有朋友。

    I want nobody but you.

    表达含义:除了你,我谁都不想要。

  4. except for
    “除了”

    注意:不同类中除去某一细节

    Your writing is good except for a few grammar
    mistakes.

    The weather was good except for an occasional
    shower.

第八节 冠词和数词

考点01 冠词的分类及用法

  • 冠词的概念:
    冠词是一种虚词,置于名词前,起限定说明的作用

    • 冠词的分类:

      定冠词:the

      不定冠词:a,an

      零冠词:不使用冠词的情况

    • 定冠词的用法

      特指双熟悉,
      上文已提及,

      世上独无二,
      序数最高级,

      某些专有名,
      方位及乐器。

    • 零冠词的用法:

      泛指概念,可用于不可数名词或复数名词之前

      用于一日三餐名词之前

      表示星期、月份、季节、节假日等时间名词前

  • 不定冠词的用法:

    • 不定冠词有a和an两种形式:

      a用于辅音音素开头的单词

      an用于元音音素开头的单词

      eg:a house a university a teacher

      an umbrella
      an example
      an hour

考点02 数词的分类及用法

数词的分类:

基数词:表示数目的数词

序数词:表示顺序的数词

分数词

  • 基数词

    eg: one, two, three…..

    注意:

    • 表示确切数字时,hundred,thousand,million,
      billion等只能用单数形式,不能加s

      eg:three hundred

      six thousand

    • 不表示具体确切的数字时,加s,且后跟of

      eg: hundreds of
      数百,成百上千的

      thousands of数千,成干上万的

      dozen(一打,12个)
      score(20个)

      表示确切数字时不用复数形式,表示不确切数字要用复数形式

      eg: two dozen bottles of water

      scores of students

      基数词+连字符+名词

      可构成复合式形容词,此时名词用单数形式

      eg: a ten-minute walk
      十分钟的步行路程

  • 序数词:

    eg: first, second, third,

    fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth…..

  • 分数词:

    分数词构成口诀:

    分子基数词,
    分母序数词,

    分子大于1,
    分母加-s.

    eg:四分之ー:one-fourth
    三分之二:two-thirds
    九分之五:five-ninths

下篇:阅读与作文

第一节 阅读理解

文章体裁:记叙文、议论文、说明文、应用文

分类:

推理判断题(约占44%)
事实细节题(约占35%)
主旨大意题(约占11%)
词语理解题(约占6%)
观点态度题(约占4%)

  1. 读懂题且

    做阅读理解

    最佳步骤:
    先看问题,弄清楚提问的内容,然后带着问题有目的
    地阅读,目标明确地寻找答案

  2. 会读文章

    阅读理解测试目的:
    测试考生通过文章获取信息的能力

    阅读方法:

    略读法:快速了解文章大意及要点

    查阅法:根据有效信息定位问题在原文中的位置

  3. 平时反复练习,培养阅读能力

    做到每天至少练习两篇文章,保证阅读量。
    根据自己的情况,设定时间完成,逐渐缩短阅读
    时间

考点01 关键词定位

  • 优先找时间、数字、人名、地名等专有名词
  • 找实词,着重看名词,其次看动词
  • 关键词也可能出现在选项中。
    (选项中若有2-4个相同的词,一般是关键词)
  • 注意:尽量避免用中心词和常用词做关键词!

考点02 顺序定位

通常出题顺序和文章段落顺序一致

考点03 推理判断题

  • 推理判断题的特点:

    • 要求考生根据文章的内容和结构作出合乎逻辑的推论

    • 推理判断题的答案往往是需要进行推理出来的,
      所以原文通常没有直接给出答案

  • 推理判断题常见干扰项的特点:

    • 直接照抄原文,非推断出的结论,通常是干扰项

    • 看似是原文中推断出来的结论,但是与原文不符

    • 根据常识判断是对的,但不能从原文推断出来

    • 推理判断题题干常见词:

      imply 暗示
      infer 推理
      conclude 推断
      suggest表明
      indicate表明,指示

考点04 事实细节题

  • 事实细节题的特点:

    • 主要考查考生把握文章具体信息的能力。
    • 在查找文章信息时,一定要认真理解题干题意,
      准确定位答案的出处。
  • ·事实细节题的做题技巧:

    1. 做好细节题的关键

      • 善于利用题干提供的关键词进行定位

      • 一眼秒杀关键词

        人名、地名,数字,年代,时间,日期,大写字母,
        特殊标点符号

      • 然后在定位处寻找答案

    2. 通常正确选项会利用同义替换,所以要特点注意
      同义替换的选项。

  • 事实细节题的干扰项特点:

    1. 部分信息正确,另一部分错误;
    2. 是原文信息,但不是题目所要求的内容;
    3. 与原句内容相似但过于绝对化;
    4. 符合常识,但不是文章的内容;
    5. 明显不是文章的信息。

考点05 主旨大意题

题目常见关键词:

  • 主旨类:

    main idea/ main point/key point

    main topic/mainly discuss

    mainly explain/ is mainly about

  • 目的类:purpose

  • 标题类:best title

  • 主旨题的答案要从主题句中得出,关键在于找出
    主题句出现的地方:
    文章首句、各段段首句和段尾句

  • 解题技巧:

    1. 根据主题词进行选择
      主题词:可能是同一词反复出现,也可能是同一类词
      贯穿全文。

    2. 运用排除

      正确答案:一般概括全文,内容全面,含义深刻

      错误答案:

      a)太具体只是文章的部分信息;

      b)太笼统超出文章的范围;

      c)正确信息与错误信息组合;

      d)与文章内容无关。

考点06 词义理解题

  • 考查方式:

    1. 猜单词或短语

      • 生词本义(大纲外词汇)
      • 熟词僻义(大纲内词汇)
    2. 猜代词(如it、that、they)

      提问方式:

      In the second paragraph , the word “them” refers to _______.

      The underline word
      “it”
      refers to _______.

      做题方法:找到代词指代内容,一般指上文提到的

    3. 猜句子

考点07 作者态度题

  • 态度题做题注意事项:
    1. 特别注意首先看清楚“谁对谁”的态度
    2. 作者态度一般与文章相关联,不要把自己的态度纳
      入其中
  • 作者态度分类:
    1. 支持,赞同,乐观
      客观,
    2. 中立
      反对,
    3. 批评,怀疑,悲观
  • 常见观点态度词:
    1. negative消极的
    2. positive积极的
    3. indifferent漠不关心的
    4. neutral 中立的
    5. disapproval 不赞成的
    6. approval 赞成的
    7. supportive支持的
    8. critical 批评的
    9. sarcastic 讽刺的

考点08 文章信号词

  1. 转折信号词

    明显转折词:but,however,while,nevertheless

    含蓄转折词:in fact,actually,as a matter of fact;
    in contrast, on the contrary;

    让步转折词:although,though,
    even if, even though ;
    in spite of, despite

  2. 表原因的信号词:

    because , as , for , since , now that;

    result from, due to, because of, on account of ;

  3. 表结果的信号词:

    cause,lead to,result in 导致(+结果)
    so,thus,therefore,consequently 因此

    As a result,(+结果)

  4. 表条件的信号词:

    if , unless , in case ,

  5. 信号词的目的:

    这类信号词是阐述作者观点态度的

    而作者的观点态度是全文论证的核心,通常也是
    文章的主题句

    信号词:

    • think, believe, consider, hold, conclude,suggest , show, indicate

    • idea, thought, attitude

    • for , against

    • in my opinion, my view is, as I see

    • in short, in sum, in a word,

    • in brief, to conclude, to sum up

  1. 信号词作用:是为了证明结论提供所需论据的

  2. 阅读方式:由于在考试做题中,我们更看重结论
    而非论据,因此这类信号词一般标志着其附近的
    例子可以略读。

  3. 规律总结:英语中通常先说结论,后举例子

  4. 例子、实验信号词

    • such as, for example =for instance +例子

    • 例子+illustrate.….+结论

      结论+ to illustrate this…+例子

    • experiment, research, survey …

  5. 强调类信号词

    比较级、最高级词:

    比较级例如:more than,as…as,

    最高级例如:-est,most important等

  6. 专家、大众信号词
    说明父

    • 专家:其的观点或话语往往是文章讲述的核心,
      是作者引用来支持自己观点的,通常都是作者认
      可的。

    eg:scientist,psychologist(心理学家),expert,
    researcher, professor, doctor,..

    • 大众:专家以外的所有人

    eg: most of us, some of us, some parents,
    boys and girls
    It is generally accepted…

  7. 特殊标点信号词

    —— 破折号表解释;表转折

    “” 重要的人物说的重要的话语

    ! 本句是重点(强调,感慨等)

    ? 对该句的回答是重点

第二节 完形填空

完型题材类型:

  • 多为说明文,主题涉及社会现象、

  • 人文科学等
    总-分结构,首句点明主题

本文作者: 史迪奇
本文链接: https://sdq3.ml/College-English.html